Recently Past EventsMay 25, 2016 7:00 pm
The Bronx Museum of the Arts
Douglas Pérez, “Pictopía III: Still I Have A Dream,” 2009, Oil on canvas 63 x 93 ¾ in.
Courtesy of the Shelley and Donald Rubin Private Collection.
Discover the world of Cuban science fiction at a bilingual reading with Erick J. Mota and Yoss, whose far-out work is featured in the May issue of Words without Borders edited by Esther Allen and Hillary Gulley. Deji Bryce Olukotun (Nigerians in Space) will moderate a discussion with Mota, Yoss, and Cuban science fiction scholar Yasmín S. Portales-Machado about this exciting literary frontier. The event is free and open to the public, and a reception will follow. Please register here.
Date: Wednesday, May 25, 7:00pm-9:00pm
Location: The Bronx Museum of the Arts, 1040 Grand Concourse, Bronx, NY 10456
Deji Bryce Olukotun is the author of Nigerians in Space, a thriller about brain drain from Africa. His short story “We Are the Olfanauts” was published in the fiction collection Watchlist: 32 Short Stories by Persons of Interest in 2015 (O/R Books). His work has been featured in Electric Literature, Quartz, Guernica, and ESPN. Deji is an attorney with a background in human rights and technology who works at the digital rights organization Access Now. Before that, he defended writers around the world at PEN American Center with support from the Ford Foundation. A sequel to Nigerians in Space will be published in 2017 by Unnamed Press.
Erick J. Mota completed a BA in physics at the University of Havana and a course on creative writing at the Onelio Jorge Cardoso Center. His work includes the short story collection Algunos recuerdos que valen la pena (2010), the novel Habana Anderguater (Atom Press, 2010), and the novella Bajo Presión, which won the 2007 Edad de Oro award. He was a finalist of the 2013 Ignotus Prize, and a recipient of the Calendario award and the TauZero award. His short stories have been published in the international anthologies 2099 and 2099-b (Ediciones Irreverentes, 2012), Malditos bastardos (Ediciones La Palma, 2014), Cuba in Splinters (O/R Books, 2014), and Terra Nova: The Anthology of Contemporary Science Fiction (Sportula, 2014). His story “For a few extra watts” was selected by the Spanish Association of Fantasy, Science Fiction and Horror for inclusion in Fabricantes de sueños (2014), an anthology of the best Spanish-language science fiction. He created Disparo en Red, an electronic science fiction and fantasy magazine that he edited from 2004 until 2008.
Yasmín S. Portales-Machado is a science fiction scholar, gay rights activist, and a freelance journalist for cubaliteraria.cu and havanatimes.org. She is the coordinator in Cuba of the “Anticapitalism and Emergent Sociability” Work Group of the Latin American Council for the Social Sciences and founder of the Cuban Digital Humanities Network. Her blog is: yasminsilvia.blogspot.com.
Yoss is an essayist, critic, and writer of realism, science fiction, and heroic fantasy. He is considered to be the most significant contemporary fantasy writer from Cuba. His work has been awarded numerous prizes, both in Cuba and abroad, and has appeared in various national and international anthologies. To date, he has published over thirty books in Cuba and around the world, and his work has been translated into English, French, Italian, Polish, and Japanese. Yoss holds a degree in biology from the University of Havana. He has been a participant in the Oscar Hurtado, Julio Verne, and El Negro Hueco fantasy and science fiction workshops, and he founded the Espiral and Espacio Abierto workshops. An active teacher, he has led seminars and workshops in Chile, the UK, Italy, Spain, and Andorra; he is also a frequent participant in international science fiction and fantasy conferences. Between 2005 and 2008 he was the Spanish editor in chief of The H, a bilingual magazine about the city of Havana. Between 2012 and 2013 he was the author of the blog La llaga (a place to put your finger), which can be found at www.eforyatocha.com. Since 2007, he has been the singer for the heavy metal band TENAZ.
This event is co-sponsored by The Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Bridge Series, Restless Books, and the Cuban Cultural Center of New York.
April 27, 2016 7:00 pm
Poets House, 10 River Terrace, New York, NY 10282
To celebrate National Poetry Month, Words Without Borders and Poets House present an evening with three poet-translators, featured in the April issue of WWB. Flávia Rocha and Idra Novey will read in Portuguese and English, and Melcion Mateu will read in Catalan. The reading will be followed by a discussion led by Catalan and Spanish translator Mary Ann Newman. The event is free and open to the public (please register here).
A co-presentation of Poets House and Words Without Borders.
Location: Kray Hall, 10 River Terrace, New York, NY 10282
Idra Novey is the author of the novel Ways to Disappear, a New York Times Editors' Choice. Her fiction and poetry have been translated into eight languages and she's written for The Paris Review, the New York Times, and NPR's All Things Considered. Her most recent translation is Clarice Lispector's novel The Passion According to G.H.
Flávia Rocha is a Brazilian poet, editor, and journalist. She is the author of three books of poetry: A Casa Azul ao Meio-dia (2005), Quartos Habitáveis (2011), and Um País (2015), all published in Brazil. She holds an MFA in Writing from Columbia University, and for thirteen years was an editor and then the editor-in-chief for Rattapallax, a literary magazine featuring contemporary American and international poetry. She cowrote the screenplay of Birds of Neptune, an independent feature film by Steven Richter.
Melcion Mateu is the author of four books of poetry, among them Vida evident, which won the 1998 Octavio Paz Prize, and Illes lligades, which was awarded the 2014 Jocs Florals de Barcelona Prize. Mateu has translated into Catalan works by John Ashbery, Siri Hustvedt, and Michael Ondaatje, among others. He holds an MA in comparative literature from Cornell University and a PhD in Spanish and Portuguese from New York University. He is currently a professor at the Univesidade Federal do Paraná in Curitiba, Brazil.
Mary Ann Newman translates from Catalan and Spanish. She has published short stories and a novel by Quim Monzó, non-fiction by Xavier Rubert de Ventós, and poetry by Josep Carner. Her most recent translation is Private Life (Archipelago Books), a 1932 Catalan classic by Josep Maria de Sagarra. In 1998 she was awarded the Creu de Sant Jordi, and she is currently the Executive Director of the Farragut Fund for Catalan Culture in the U.S.
Read the feature, with work by the featured poet-translators and Rowan Ricardo Phillips, in our April issue.
March 21, 2016 6:30 pm
Center for the Humanities, CUNY Graduate Center
To celebrate the Morocco issue of Words without Borders, Prix Goncourt-winner Fouad Laroui and translator Emma Ramadan will read from their work and discuss the political and social context for Moroccan literature today—both in and outside the country. The conversation will be moderated by Adam Shatz, contributing editor at the London Review of Books.
A co-presentation of Words Without Borders, the CUNY Center for the Humanities, and the Translation Mellon Seminar for Public Engagement and Collaborative Research.
Location: The Skylight Room (9100), 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016
December 14, 2015 7:00 pm
Albertine: 972 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10075
Join December issue contributors Naivo and Allison M. Charette as they read from Charette’s translation of Naivo’s work and discuss the translation of Beyond the Rice Fields, the first novel from Madagascar ever translated into English, followed by a discussion of Naivo’s work moderated by WWB Editor Eric M. B. Becker.
A reception following the event will feature music from the acclaimed Malagasy musician Razia Said.
Event is free and open to the public. Please RSVP here.
Allison M. Charette translates literature from French into English. She received a 2015 PEN/Heim Translation Fund Grant for Naivo’s Beyond the Rice Fields, the first novel from Madagascar to be translated into English. She founded the Emerging Literary Translators’ Network in America (ELTNA.org), a networking and support group for early-career translators. Allison has published two book-length translations, in addition to short translated fiction that has appeared in The Other Stories, InTranslation, the SAND Journal, and others. Find her online at charettetranslations.com.
Naivoharisoa Patrick Ramamonjisoa, who goes by the pen name Naivo, has worked as a journalist in his home country of Madagascar and as a professor in Paris, and now works for the press in Canada. “Beyond the Rice Fields” is his first novel, published in March 2012 from Éditions Sépia. He is also the author of numerous (as yet untranslated) short stories, including “Dahalo,” which received the RFI/ACCT prize in 1996, and “Iarivomandroso,” which was adapted for a theatrical production in Antananarivo, Madagascar. Naivo is working on his second novel, and has just released a short story collection entitled “Madagascar entre poivre et vanille.”
Eric M. B. Becker is editor of Words without Borders. He is also an award-winning journalist and literary translator. In 2014, he earned a PEN/Heim Translation Fund Grant for his translation of a short story collection by Neustadt Prize for International Literature winner Mia Couto, forthcoming from Biblioasis. Also in 2014, he was resident writer at the Louis Armstrong House. Other translations include work by Brazilian writers Edival Lourenço, Paulo Scott, Eric Nepomuceno, and Carlos Drummond de Andrade and has been awarded a 2016 Fulbright fellowship to translate Brazilian literature. You can find him online at ericmbbecker.com.
After years of living abroad, singer and song-writer Razia Said returned to Madagascar in 2007 to discover her country’s landscape ravaged by illegal logging, slash-and-burn agriculture and the impact of climate change. That trip inspired the production of her first album, the critically-acclaimed Zebu Nation, which was released by Cumbancha Discovery in 2010. The songs on her new album, Akory, address Razia’s life experiences as well as Madagascar’s struggles to cope with an ever-deteriorating political situation, the destruction of the country’s bio-diverse forests and the daily challenges faced by its inhabitants.
November 12, 2015 6:30 pm
Center for the Humanities, CUNY Graduate Center
November 02, 2015 6:30 pm
Tribeca Three Sixty
Now’s your chance to reserve your place at dinner with celebrated poet and MacArthur fellow Edward Hirsch, Pulitzer Prize for Poetry winner Gregory Pardlo, PEN/Robert W. Bingham Prize winner Monique Truong, and others. We’ll be honoring distinguished editor and publisher Sara Bershtel with the 2015 Ottaway Award for International Literature—don’t miss it! Buy tickets here
For information on how to be a 2015 Words without Borders Gala Sponsor, contact us at [email protected].
September 23, 2015 7:00 pm
Words without Borders editor Eric M. B. Becker and Milena Deleva (Elizabeth Kostova Foundation) in conversation with the acclaimed Bulgarian author Georgi Gospodinov on his latest novel, The Physics of Sorrow, and other recent fiction and nonfiction works. In truly international fashion, the event will be conducted in both Bulgarian and English. more info>>>
September 21, 2015 6:30 pm
Join WWB Editor Eric M. B. Becker, Geoff Mak from The Offing, and translator and love german books blogger Katy Derbyshire, just back from Berlin, for a discussion on the limits and un-limits of sharing literature on the net. more info>>>
September 16, 2015 3:16 pm
September 08, 2015 7:00 pm
Join us as we launch the September issue of Words without Borders, focused on contemporary Peruvian literature. Independent Foreign Fiction Prize-winner Santiago Roncagliolo and Premio Las Américas winner Claudia Salazar Jiménez will read from their work in Spanish, followed by readings in English and a Q&A.
WHAT: A bilingual reading with award-winning writers Santiago Roncagliolo and Claudia Salazar Jiménez
WHEN: Tuesday, September 8 at 7 p.m.
WHERE: 61 Local, 61 Bergen Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201
Event is free and open to the public.
December 10, 2014 6:00 pm
New York Public Library, Main Branch
Wall Painting for Nara's Cabin, 2006. Courtesy of the artist and Blum & Poe, Los Angeles ©Yoshitomo Nara
Words without Borders and the New York Public Library present a discussion of the vibrant and compelling world of international YA. Join our distinguished panelists, including Padma Venkatraman, Briony Everroad, Roxanne Hsu-Feldman, and Arthur A. Levine in a wide-ranging conversation about diversity and international voices in YA writing today, moderated by editor, author and professor of Library Sciences Marc Aronson. This event coincides with the launch of WWB’s December issue, dedicated to the best new YA writing from around the world, from countries including Georgia, Bangladesh, Germany, Norway, South Korea, and many more.
Where: New York Public Library Schwarzman Building, South Court auditorium, (42nd Street and 5th Avenue)
When: December 10, 2014, 6 PM
About the Panelists
Marc Aronson earned his doctorate in American History at NYU while working as an editor of books for young readers. Among many awards and honors, he was the first winner of the American Library Association's Robert F. Sibert medal for best informational book for readers through age 14 and the editor of the tenth medal winner. Dr. Aronson teaches in the graduate library school at Rutgers where he trains school and public librarians, and frequently speaks at state, national, and international conferences on materials for children and teenagers. He and his wife, the novelist Marina Budhos, will publish their second co-authored book, The Eyes of the World: The Story of Robert Capa and Gerda Taro, in 2016.
Briony Everroad is a freelance editor based in San Francisco. Over ten years at Random House UK, she published such diverse works as Jo Nesbø’s Harry Hole series and George Orwell’s A Life in Letters. She also edited and contributed to the View from This Bridge blog. Briony has always been passionate about international writing, and in 2010 founded the Harvill Secker Young Translators’ Prize to celebrate the achievements of new and emerging translators. She has been a guest speaker at many translated literature events and has attended literature symposiums across the globe. Her love of stories from around the world began with the novels of Astrid Lindgren and deepened as she discovered the many thought-provoking novels written for young adults. Briony was a consultant for the forthcoming Oxford Companion to Children’s Literature by Daniel Hahn.
Roxanne Hsu Feldman grew up in Taiwan and taught English in Middle School before coming to the United States to study children's literature. She received a Master's in Children's Literature from the Center for the Study of Children's Literature at Simmons College in 1991 and has since worked exclusively in the field of children's and young adult literature. She worked as a Rights Assistant for Macmillan Children's Books, sold children's books at the legendary Eeyore's Books for Children, served as Children's Librarian at The New York Public Library and has been the Middle School Librarian at New York City's Dalton School for the last 18 years. Roxanne has served on the Newbery Committee twice and is currently a member of the Best Fiction for Young Adults Committee
Arthur A. Levine is Vice President and Publisher of Arthur A. Levine Books, an imprint of Scholastic Inc. Throughout his career, Levine has edited and championed great novelists from around the English-speaking world, including Philip Pullman, J.K. Rowling, Kevin Crossley-Holland, Jaclyn Moriarty, Markus Zusak, Roddy Doyle, Martine Murray, Leah Bobet, Martin Mordecai, and Sally Nicholls, along with the marvelous picture books of Shaun Tan and the acclaimed duo of Julia Donaldson and Axel Scheffler. He is also a leading publisher of books-in-translation, introducing American children to such great writers as Daniella Carmi (Israel), Josef Holub and Wolfgang Herrndorf (Germany), Luis Sepulveda (Chile), Laura Gallego Garcia (Spain), Silvana Gandolfi (Italy), Nahoko Uehashi and Komako Sakai (Japan), Sylvie Weil (France), Guus Kuijer, Karlijn Stoffels, and Marcel Prins (the Netherlands), and Anne Provoost (Belgium). We are especially proud to be bringing out the first contemporary YA translated from the Russian, Playing the Part by Daria Wilke, coming in March of 2015.
Padma Venkatraman (www.padmasbooks.blogspot.com) was born in Chennai, India, and became an American citizen after attaining a PhD in oceanography from The College of William and Mary. She is also the author of Island's End, which was an ALA Best Book of the Year, an ALA/Amelia Bloomer List selection, a CCBC Best Book, a Booklist Editor's Choice, and a Kirkus Best Book of the Year. Her Climbing the Stairs won the Julia Ward Howe award and was a Book Sense Notable, Booklist Best Book of the Year, Bank Street College of Education Best Book, New York Public Library Book for the Teen Age, YALSA BBYA selection, Notable Social Studies Trade Book for Young People, and CCBC Choice. Her latest novel, A Time to Dance, was released in May 2014 to starred reviews in Kirkus, Booklist, VOYA, SLJ, and BCCB, and is a Booklist Top 10 art book for youth
Co-presented by Words without Borders and the New York Public Library
October 14, 2014 7:00 pm
When: Tuesday, October 14, 7:00
In celebration of its October 2014 issue of new writing from Guatemala, Words without Borders and Community Bookstore will host a bilingual reading and discussion with Eduardo Halfon, Rodrigo Fuentes, and Idra Novey. We hope you'll come out to help us celebrate Guatemalan literature.
Eduardo Halfon was born in Guatemala City, moved to the United States at the age of ten, went to school in South Florida, studied Industrial Engineering at North Carolina State University, and then returned to Guatemala to teach literature for eight years at Universidad Francisco Marroquín. Named one of the best young Latin American writers by the Hay Festival of Bogotá, he is also the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and the prestigious José María de Pereda Prize for the Short Novel. He has published eleven books of fiction in Spanish. The Polish Boxer (Bellevue Literary Press), his first book to appear in English, was a New York Times Editors’ Choice selection and finalist for the International Latino Book Award. Halfon currently lives in Nebraska and frequently travels to Guatemala. His latest English translation, Monastery (Bellevue Literary Press) is forthcoming in October 2014.
Rodrigo Fuentes (Guatemala) has received the short story awards II Premio Centroamericano de Carátula de Cuento Breve (2014) and Premio de Cuento de Juegos Florales de Quetzaltenango (2008). His stories have appeared in the anthologies Asamblea Portátil: Muestrario de narradores iberoamericanos (Casatomada, 2009), Sólo Cuento III (UNAM, 2011), Ni hermosa ni maldita (Alfaguara, 2012), and Voces-30: Nueva Narrativa Latinoamericana (Patagonia Ebooks, 2014). He is co-founder and editor of the contemporary art and fiction magazine Suelta and of the digital publisher Traviesa.
Idra Novey is the author most recently of Clarice: The Visitor, a collection of poems and images in collaboration with Erica Baum. Her debut novel Ways to Disappear is forthcoming from Little, Brown in 2016. Earlier poetry collections include Exit, Civilian, selected for the 2011 National Poetry Series, and The Next Country, a finalist for the 2008 Foreword Book of the Year Award in poetry. Her most recent translation is Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector’s novel The Passion According to G.H. She teaches in the Creative Writing Program at Princeton University.
September 16, 2014 7:00 pm
Israel Centeno (Caracas, 1958) has published thirteen books, mostly novels, but also short fiction and poetry. His books include the novels Calletania (Monte Ávila, 1992; Periférica, 2010), Exilio en Bowery (Troya, 1998; Nuevo Espacio, New Jersey, 2000), El Complot (Alfadil, 2002), and Bajo las hojas (Alfaguara, 2010). He has published two books of short stories: El rabo del diablo y otros cuentos (Eclepsidra, 1993) and Criaturas de la noche (Alfaguara, 2000, 2011). He currently lives, with his wife and two daughters, in Pittsburgh, where until 2013 he has been Exiled Writer in Residence in City of Asylum. Sampsonia Way has published his novel The Conspiracy in an English translation by Guillermo Parra.
Nathalie Handal is the author of numerous books, most recently Poet in Andalucía; Love and Strange Horses, winner of the 2011 Gold Medal Independent Publisher Book Award; and the W.W. Norton landmark anthology Language for a New Century: Contemporary Poetry from the Middle East, Asia & Beyond. Her plays have been produced at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, the Bush Theatre and Westminster Abbey, London. Her poetry, stories and literary travel articles have appeared in Vanity Fair, Guernica, the Guardian, the Nation, and other publications. Handal is a Lannan Foundation Fellow, winner of the Alejo Zuloaga Order in Literature 2011, and Honored Finalist for the Gift of Freedom Award, among other honors.
Kayhan Irani was born in Bombay, India and was raised on the mean streets of Queens, NYC. She is an Emmy award winner, a Fulbright Fellow and a Theater of the Oppressed trainer. Kayhan loves playing theater games.
Orlando Luis Pardo Lazo was born in Havana in 1971 and came to the US in March 2013. In Cuba he published the narratives Collage karaoke (2001), Empezar de cero (2001), Ipatrias (2005) and Mi nombre es William Saroyan (2006). His novel, Boring Home, was censored by the Letras Cubanas publishing house in 2009 and then published by Garamond (Paris, 2009) and El Nacional (Caracas, 2013). In Cuba he was an independent journalist and photographer. He is the webmaster of the blogs Lunes de Postrevolución and Boring Home Utopics and the founding editor of the magazine Voces. He contributes columns to Diario de Cuba (Madrid, Spain), Sampsonia Way (Pittsburgh, Penn.), and El Nacional (Caracas). In 2014 OR Books published his anthology of new Cuban narrative writing, Cuba in Splinters. He is a visiting fellow at Brown University for the current academic year. Restless Books will publish his book of photographs and essays, Abandoned Havana, this October.
May 01, 2014 7:00 pm
163 Court Street, Brooklyn, NY
This event is free and open to the public. Seating is limited--please RSVP.
Join us for a lively panel discussion and reading in celebration of the May 2014 issue of Words without Borders featuring new Dutch and Flemish writing on taboos. Joseph O'Neill will moderate a conversation with Victor Schiferli, Sanneke van Hassel, and Annelies Verbeke.
The Netherlands has an international reputation as a freewheeling country, a permissive society in which activities considered marginal or criminal elsewhere are allowed, if not encouraged. Even in this relaxed context, however, some taboos remain. The May 2014 of Words without Borders will be dedicated to “Taboos: New Dutch and Flemish Writing.” The Dutch and Flemish writers presented here explore transgression—from drug and sexual addiction to parental resentment and unfiltered speech—to provide fascinating insights into contemporary Dutch and Flemish culture.
This event is supported as part of the Dutch Culture USA program by the Consulate General of the Netherlands in New York, and is presented in partnership with Flanders House, the Dutch Foundation for Literature, the Flemish Literature Fund, and BookCourt.
About the panelists:
Joseph O'Neill grew up in The Hague. He is the author of four books, most recently Netherland. A new novel, The Dog, appears in September.
Sanneke van Hassel (b. 1971, the Netherlands) studied theater arts and cultural history. Her debut collection of short stories IJsregen (Ice Rain), published in 2005, was nominated for several literary awards. She is the author of Sarajevo: Pieces of Sarajevo (2006); Witte veder (White Feather, 2007), for which she received the BNG Literary Award; Nest (2010), her first novel; and Ezels (Donkeys, 2012). In 2012, together with Flemish writer Annelies Verbeke, she published an anthology of short stories from around the world, Naar de stad (To the City, 2012).
Victor Schiferli (b. 1967, the Netherlands) is a writer and poet and an advisor at the Dutch Foundation for Literature (www.letterenfonds.nl), supporting the translation of books from the Netherlands. Between 2001 and 2007 he was commissioning editor at De Bezige Bij, one of the country’s leading publishing houses. He made his debut with the poetry collection Aan een open raam (At An Open Window, 2000, nominated for the C. Buddingh debut of the year award), followed by Verdwenen obers (Disappeared Waiters, 2005) and Toespraak in een struik (A Speech In the Bushes, 2008, nominated for the Hugues C. Pernath Prize). His first novel, Dromen van Schalkwilk (Dreams of Schalkwijk), was published in 2012. He has edited several anthologies and has also worked as a journalist, critic, and photographer.
Annelies Verbeke’s debut novel Sleep! was published by De Geus (the Netherlands, 2003). She is also the author of the novels Giant and Saving Fish, two collections of short stories (Greener Grass and Assumptions—the latter a “novel in stories”), a collection of journalistic stories (Awake, together with photographer Charlie De Keersmaecker) and, most recently, the graphic novella Tirol Inferno with illustrator Klaas Verplancke. Her work has been translated into 22 languages and has won numerous prizes. She has written scripts for the theater and for television, and regularly writes for newspapers. She is a great lover of short stories, and has written on the subject in various publications, contributed to short story festivals around Europe, and produced Naar de Stad (To the City), an anthology of short stories from around the world, along with author Sanneke Van Hassel. Verbeke is a board member of PEN Belgium (Dutch-speaking). She lives in Ghent, Belgium. www.anneliesverbeke.be
April 25, 2014 7:00 pm
1517 W. Fullerton Ave, Chicago
Voices of Protest draws attention to the plight of exiled authors and celebrates a global literature. The Guild Literary Complex will host Manal Al-Sheikh (Iraq) and Mazen Maarouf (Palestine), two poets currently living in exile in Scandinavia because their work as writers and journalists has endangered their existence in their countries.
As part of this program, two short films will be screened which are included in Poets of Protest, an Al Jazeera produced documentary series by British filmmaker Roxana Vilk. The series focuses on six Middle Eastern authors and the relationship of their work to initiatives for democracy and social justice across the Middle East. Screenings will be followed by readings from Al-Sheikh and Maarouf.
Support for Voices of Protest is provided by the MacArthur Foundation International Connections Fund. It is co-sponsored by Facets Multi-Media, Al Jazeera America, Words Without Borders, and HotHouse.